Liquid bulk terminal design project has an attached master layout that shows facilities location on the site. Master layout is compiled with regard to local relief, geological structure of the chosen territory, and climatic features. During design project works petroleum products classification is taken into consideration, along with fire-preventing conditions, facility infrastructure, and many other factors. At this stage of project designing topographic base is used primarily, that is a location plan with railway lines, highways and communications, external water supply and power supply systems. The site plan contains wind patterns and coordinate grids. This plan helps connect the oil depot with all transport routes and networks of the territory. Dead-end tracks should be made with correct radius and slope grade and connect with main tracks in the most convenient places.
When the networks are connected, structures are located in the seven zones. The operational zone is usually located close to the entrance for quick access. Because the storage zone is considered the most dangerous, it is located farthest and separated with limited access. Auxiliary facilities zone is also considered dangerous because of fire use, so it is also separated. Sewage facilities zone should be located in subdued relief to dump extra precipitation and industrial waste water into an oil trap. Pipelines and technological networks are planned in maximal proximity to facilities. Facilities in the liquid bulk terminal zones are located according to cardinal and wind direction. This means that hazardous locations (like boiler houses) are placed aside, so that the wind would blow the sparks away from industrial zones, tank batteries and barreling stations.
After horizontal planning of the territory facilities are located on the plan. They are given coordinates of one of the angles and their dimensions are marked. Vertical planning of the oil depot territory should meet the following requirements:
- Gravity flow for railroad tank cars loading operations should be provided.
- Pipelines on the fuel depot territory shouldn’t have bends.
- Conditions for good sucking of the pump group should be provided.
When the master layout is ready, designing of the piping system of the fuel depot begins, which will later be used as grounds for the pipeline hydraulic calculations.
The next stage of oil terminal designing is working out the technological system. This is a scheme of oil pipeline network. To compile this scheme it is important to know the order and the amount of acceptance and supply operations, as well as the list of stored products. The necessity of oil products transit between tanks inside the oil terminal is also taken into consideration.
Then, the Technological Scheme is included into the Master Layout to form the Technological Plan. On this plan separate alignment sheets are compiled, where ground lines and pipeline location are marked. Pumping groups and wells, ground elevation and alignment points are also shown in the sheets. Alignment points are also marked by benchmarks every 100 meters and by posts every kilometer. Calculated pipeline pitch is maintained in the preset parameter.
The sheets are the basis for the amount of earthwork calculation, along with the calculation of oil product residues in the tank. It is also possible to find out if there are any pockets that block the oil product passage along the pipes.
Fire safety and ecology protection play important role in oil terminal design project. For these purposes climatic conditions are considered, along with the location of the liquid bulk terminal in relation to proximity of the city and water sources. Depending on the wind pattern, living quarter and production facilities of the liquid bulk terminal are located downwind to prevent fire hazard. Oil terminal design project is made in compliance with all ecological requirements. Pollutant emission is calculated, based on the amount and type of stored oil products, as well as other factors. Licenses are obtained on the basis of this data with regard to emission status.