The need for heating and thermal insulation of a water tank can arise for several reasons. If the tank is installed outdoors, or in an unheated room in regions with negative temperatures, it is thermally insulated to prevent water freezing. Also, thermal insulation and heating systems are arranged on reservoirs in which heated or hot water is stored to maintain a given temperature.
We can select the optimal heating system depending on the tasks and resources available at the operating enterprise.
Heating is carried out using a tube heat exchanger located inside the water tank, which is supplied with a heating agent (steam, hot water, thermal oil).
An alternative option is electric heating. In this case, a system of a self-regulating thermal cable is used, which is attached to the wall of the tank, heating module, distribution module, temperature sensor and control unit.
Alternatively, electrical heating can be designed using electrical heaters. They are mounted inside the water tank through the wall. It is convenient when the heating element is equipped with a protective tubular casing - in this case, its repair or replacement will not require emptying the tank.
Thermal insulation of the water storage tank is performed on the shell and roof (or just the shell).
There are various systems for these purposes:
- Mineral wool boards or fiber with a metal sheath. Plates with a density of 48 kg / m3 are used. The casing is usually mounted in galvanized steel or polymer coated steel. The durability of the entire thermal insulation system depends on how well the casing is mounted. Today it is the most popular method of thermal insulation of a water tank on the market.
- Another block thermal insulation with a metal casing. Instead of mineral wool board, polyurethane foam or polyisocyanurate blocks can be used. The blocks are manufactured at the factory with a bend radius that matches the radius of the water tank wall.
- Spraying rigid polyurethane foam. The material is sprayed in layers with a thickness of 8 - 12 mm.
- Foamed rubber. This is a rolled material that is glued to the primed surface of the water tank, then protected from mechanical stress by a polymer or metal coating.
- Liquid ceramic materials. They are mounted by spraying and are convenient in that they do not require additional protection from environmental influences.
For thermal insulation of the water storage tank, it is necessary to develop a Thermal Insulation Project. When developing it, all aspects of the interaction between the tank and the insulation system are taken into account (load from the weight of the system on the tank structure, wind load on the system, the difference in thermal displacements, hydrostatic loads, etc.)